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Sex, Ethnic Differential Patterns of COVID-19 Unexplained

THURSDAY, June 25, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Sex and ethnicity differential patterns of COVID-19 positivity are not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioral factors, according to a study published online June 19 in the Journal of Public Health.

Zahra Raisi-Estabragh, M.D., from Queen Mary University of London, and colleagues studied 4,510 U.K. Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (1,326 positive) to examine whether the greater severity of COVID-19 among men and Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) individuals is explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioral factors.

The researchers identified overrepresentation of men and BAME in the COVID-19-positive group. On average, a poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, and greater material deprivation were seen for BAME individuals; they were also more likely to live in larger households and in apartments. Independent associations with significantly greater odds of COVID-19 were seen for male sex, BAME ethnicity, higher body mass index, higher Townsend deprivation score, and household overcrowding. The pattern of the association was consistent for men and women; sex/ethnicity associations were not attenuated by cardiometabolic, sociodemographic, and behavioral factors.

"The sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 is not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, socioeconomic, or behavioral factors," the authors write. "Investigation of alternative biological and genetic susceptibilities as well as more comprehensive assessment of the complex economic, social and behavioral differences is warranted."

Abstract/Full Text

Metabolic Syndrome Up in Young Adults in the United States

THURSDAY, June 25, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among young adults in the United States is rising, according to a research letter published in the June 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Grishma Hirode and Robert J. Wong, M.D., from the Alameda Health System-Highland Hospital in Oakland, California, used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011 to 2016) to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults.

The researchers found that among 17,048 participants, the weighted metabolic syndrome prevalence was 34.7 percent. There were no significant differences in metabolic syndrome prevalence between men and women, but it was highest among "other" race/ethnicity (39 percent), followed by Hispanic (36.3 percent) and non-Hispanic white (36 percent) participants. While increasing, the change in overall crude metabolic syndrome prevalence from 2011 to 2016 was not statistically significant. Metabolic syndrome prevalence increased significantly among those aged 20 to 39 years (16.2 to 21.3 percent), women (31.7 to 36.6 percent), Asian participants (19.9 to 26.2 percent), and Hispanic participants (32.9 to 40.4 percent).

"Efforts to implement prevention strategies, including lifestyle modification and use of medications targeted at subgroups at highest risk, may assist in lowering the risk of developing cardiovascular disease," the authors write.

One author disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Stay-at-Home Orders Tied to Slowing of COVID-19 Hospitalizations

FRIDAY, June 19, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Statewide stay-at-home orders are associated with decreases in COVID-19 hospitalizations, according to a research letter recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Soumya Sen, Ph.D., from the University of Minnesota Carlson School of Management in Minneapolis, and colleagues assessed the association between statewide executive stay-at-home orders and hospitalization trends. Cumulative confirmed COVID-19 hospitalizations from each state's department of health website were collected on a daily basis. Four states (Colorado, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia) were included with at least seven consecutive days of cumulative hospitalization data for COVID-19 before the stay-at-home order date and at least 17 days following the order date.

The researchers found that the median effective date of a stay-at-home order closely fit and favored an exponential function over a linear fit (R2 = 0.973 versus 0.695 in Colorado; 0.965 versus 0.865 in Minnesota; 0.98 versus 0.803 in Ohio; 0.994 versus 0.775 in Virginia). Observed hospitalization growth rates deviated from projected exponential growth rates, with slower growth in all four states after the median effective date. Outside of the 95 percent prediction bands of the projected exponential growth curve, observed hospitalizations consistently fell. Five days after the median effective date in Minnesota, the cumulative projected hospitalizations were 988 versus 361 actual hospitalizations. In Virginia, projected hospitalizations five days after the median effective date were 2,335 projected hospitalizations versus 1,048 actual hospitalizations.

"The observation that hospitalizations decreased after the 12-day median incubation period following the issuance of the stay-at-home orders suggests that these orders are an important contributing factor to slowing down hospitalization rates," Sen said in a statement.

Two authors disclosed financial ties to the medical device and health care industries.

Abstract/Full Text

Top COVID-19 Discussions: Best Practices and General Questions

A young female with worsening weakness, intermittent blurry vision, and intermittent paraesthesia

Female patient, 40 years old. Caucasian with a history of anxiety presented to emergency department with gradual worsening weakness.

Intermittent blurry vision, and intermittent paresthesia over three weeks. 

What are the possible causes of these symptoms in this patient?


Top COVID-19 Discussions: Medication Recommendation

Top COVID-19 Discussions: Case reports

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